Luis Buñuel Portolés

Luis Buñuel Portolés (Calanda, Teruel, Aragón, Spain, 1900 – February 22, Mexico City, Mexico, 29 July 1983) was a film director Spanish naturalized Mexican.[ 1 ] The vast majority of his work was done on Mexico and France and is considered one of the most important and original directors of film history.[ 2

Biography

The early years

Luis Buñuel was born in Calanda 22 February 1900. His father, Leonardo buñuel González, originally from the same village where he was a hardware store business had a small fortune in Cuba, after the war of independence liquidated its business and returned to his hometown, where he married María Portolés Cerezuela, much younger than him with whom he had seven children: Luis (1900), Mary (1901), Alicia (1902), design (1904), Leonardo (1907), Margaret (1912) and Alfonso (1915). Four months of the birth of his first son, the family moved to Zaragoza and then went on to share your holiday between Calanda (where returning in Holy week) and San Sebastian.

Thus, Luis spent his childhood and adolescence in Zaragoza, where the primary and secondary education, he studied first in Corazonistas (with majority of French) and then for seven years at the Jesuit College in El Salvador, in the plaza de Aragón, half board (with a CAP as uniform). In 1908 he attended first film Farrucini (a barrack with fabric like cover) to see a film by hand colored cartoon. At that time film was still an attraction of fair and even took a few years to have stable rooms. Luis saw during his childhood many films (his cousin had access from the kitchen of his house to the screen of one of the first theaters in Zaragoza). When he was thirteen, around the corner from one of the regular journeys to Paris from parents, they got you a theatre with characters of cardboard; with this theatre he began offering representations the youth of his people.

In 1913, in parallel to his studies, he began playing the violin and playing in the choir of the Virgin of the Carmen de Zaragoza. That same year was released for the first time in Aragon and traveled to Vega de Pas (Cantabria). In 1915 he was expelled by the Jesuits because of a high school and enrolled in the Institute of education middle of Zaragoza (later named Goya) as a free student. At that time he read Darwin the origin of species.

At age 17, finished high school, he left for Madrid for University study. It stayed in the newly created Student residence, founded by the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, where he remained seven years in the capital. Its purpose was to study, led by his father, agronomist engineering. During this time he became interested in naturism and led Spartan, food and clothes like washing with cold water. He took part in the activities of the residence Cine and became friendly with, among others, Salvador Dalí, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, pepín Bello and Juan Ramón Jiménez. Also participated in chats ultraístas and every Saturday from 1918 to 1924 in the of the Café pombo, led by Ramón Gómez de la Serna.

In 1920 began with the doctor Ignacio Bolívar, studies of Entomology, which he left to enroll in philosophy and literature, history, branch since it was reported in several countries offer working as a Spanish reader graduates in philosophy and literature, which was an opportunity to fulfill his wish out of Spain.

With his residency he made his first essays of staging versions delirious of Don Juan Tenorio in acting Lorca, Dalí and other colleagues.

André breton.

In 1921, year of the Annual disaster, met at the residence brother Abd el-Krim, leader of the resistance against the French and Spanish colonial rule in North Morocco. He first visited Toledo city that caused a deep impression in Buñuel and his friends. He also had knowledge in these years of the most important international trends of thought and art and showed interest in Dada and the work of Louis aragon and André Breton. And of course followed by attending regular film.

In 1923 death of his father in Zaragoza, began military service and published his first paper, followed by short stories and poems in leading magazines and even prepared a book that collected them under the title an Andalusian dog. Many of the images of these years prior to the French surrealist writings became their cinema. The same year 1923 St. Joseph day founded the parodic order of Toledo and appoints its own Constable. To be knighted was get drunk and be all night without sleep. To her they belonged, among others, Dalí, Pepín Bello, Alberti…

In 1924, year in which Dalí made his first portrait, Bachelor’s degree in history and resigned doctoral decided to depart for Paris, who by then was cultural capital of the West.In January 1925, after attending the Conference gives Louis Aragon in residence, Buñuel left Madrid headed to Paris. In Paris he attended gatherings of Spanish immigrants and is closer to the surrealist group. His fondness for film intensified and saw usually three movies a day, by the tomorrow (generally private projections through a press pass), another in the afternoon in a neighbourhood cinema and the other night. Also began to collaborate as a critic in several publications of film and art as Cahiers d’art, Álfar, L’ friend of les Arts, Helix, horizon and La Gaceta Literaria. In them he expressed their film ideas, something that is not celebrated hereinafter.

The pianist Ricardo viñes proposed address altarpiece Maese Pedro Manuel de Falla to scenic, premiered in Amsterdam on April 26, 1926 and represented also the next day, it was a major success. This experience led him to write a piece of Theatre House of leading-edge entitled Hamlet which was premiered in Paris Sélect coffee in 1927.

Its full conversion to films produced after seeing the film the three lights (Der müde Tod) Fritz Lang. Several weeks later it was presented during a shoot to the well-known French director Jean epstein and volunteered to work on any work in exchange for learning all what he could of cinema and Epstein ended up allowing you to play the post of Assistant Director in the filming of his silents Mauprat and the fall of the House of Usher (La maison Usher chute) in 1928.

Also in these years he collaborated as an actor in small roles as smuggler in Carmen’s albatross, studies with Raquel meller, and on La Sirène des Tropiques with Josephine Baker. All this background he became familiar with the film Office and allowed him to meet good professionals and actors that would later collaborate with him on an Andalusian dog and the golden age, his first two films. As a critic, he praised films of buster keaton and attacked as pretentious, the French film avant-garde in whose ranks punks Jean Epstein. His break with the is known Aragonese refusing to work in the new project of the most renowned French avant-garde directors, Abel gance.

More and more interested by the Breton, surrealist group began to move his companions the residence the novelties of this trend, writing an Orthodox surrealist poems and Dalí to return with him to Paris to learn about the new movement to urge. In 1927 he wrote Polismos and went to the residence to direct a film series.

In 1928 he prepared a screenplay on Francisco Goya on the occasion of the centenary of his death, sponsored by a town Committee. Project was not successful due to lack of budget, like no other based on a script by Ramón Gómez de la Serna to headline the world by ten cents, in which the thread would be the successive changes of owner of a currency. This year, he joined the Paris surrealist group. In collaboration with Ramón Gómez de la Serna ended whims, which never comes rolling script.

Salvador Dalí (1939).

In January 1929, Buñuel and Dalí, closely, finalized the script for a film whose project would be entitled on the Marist in the crossbow, it is dangerous to look within, and finally, an Andalusian dog. The film began filming on April 2 with a 25,000 pesetas budget made by the mother of Buñuel. Premiered on July 6 at the Studio des Ursulines, a Parisian Cine, which achieved a resounding success among the French intelligentsia and stayed nine consecutive months in the Studio 28 on display.

Of the projection of an Andalusian dog, Buñuel was admitted squarely in the surrealist group which met daily in Café cyrano to read articles, discuss policy and write letters and manifests. There, Buñuel forged a friendship with Max ernst, André Breton, paul éluard, tristan tzara, yves tanguy, Magritte and Louis Aragon, among others.

In late 1929 he returned to meet with Dalí to write the screenplay of what would later be the golden age, but collaboration already proved so successful, because the love of Dalí, Gala eluard is interposed between the two. Buñuel started the shooting of the film in April 1930, when the artist was enjoying a holiday Gala in Torremolinos. When he discovered that Buñuel was already over the film with substantial patronage of the Viscounts of Noailles, who wished to produce one of early sound films of French cinema, Dalí felt marginalized project and betrayed by his friend, which caused a rift between them was increasing in the future. In spite of this, congratulated Buñuel for feature film, assuring him it had seemed “American film”. The premiere took place on November 28, 1930. Five days later right-wing groups attacked the cinema where projected and the French authorities banned the film and they commandeered all existing copies, beginning a long it censors would last half-century since it was not distributed until 1980 in New York and a year later in Paris.

Photo shooting of The golden age. Buñuel appears seated in the Center.

In 1930 Buñuel traveled to Hollywood, hired by the Metro goldwyn mayer, as ‘observer’, so it is familiar with the American production system. There he met Charlie Chaplin and Sergei Eisenstein. In 1931 he became Spain, on the eve of the proclamation of the Second Republic. The golden age, was shown in Madrid and Barcelona. In 1932 he attended the first meeting of the Association of writers revolutionaries (camper), separated from the surrealist group and joined the French Communist Party. Hired by Paramount, he returned to Spain and worked as head of synchronization. In 1933, funded by Ramón acín, friend filmed Las Hurdes, land without bread, a documentary about that region Extremaduran. The right and the Falange Española began to rebel in Spain and the film was banned by the young and weak Spanish as demeaning to Spain. That same year he signed a manifesto against Hitler Federico Garcia Lorca, Rafael Alberti, Sender, Ugarte and Vallejo.

Visited Paris in 1934 to Dalí already married Gala. Dalí was indifferent Buñuel, increased its distance. On June 23, he married Jeanne Rucar, who he met in the House of his friend Joaquin Peinado in 1925 when studying Anatomy in Paris, and was artistic gymnastics at the 1924 Paris Olympics bronze medal. The wedding was celebrated at City Hall of Paris, 20th district without inviting the family with improvised three witnesses, one of them, a passerby unknown) and after eating, Buñuel returned to Madrid, since it had agreed to work for Warner brothers as a dubbing director. The couple had two sons, Jean Louis, born in Paris, and Rafael, as you would in New York.

In 1935, with the help of some family money, founded, together with Ricardo urgoiti, the production company Filmófono, competed against the Cifesa of the brothers Casanova, leading Spanish producer of the 1930s. Filmófono produced films such as Don Quentin the amargao, which debuted in the film the great dancer Carmen Amaya, the daughter of John Simon, me who wants me? or Sentinel alert! and the only condition of Buñuel to produce them was, curiously, does not appear in the data sheet, because his eyes were not more than “cheap melodrama”. All these films were profitable and led the consolidation of the Spanish film industry in the 1930s. However, the Civil War aborted this project.

The Civil War. United States

State Franco coup shocked Buñuel in Madrid. Dalí sided with Franco and sympathised with the nationalist side, Buñuel has always remained faithful to the democracy in the Republic. However, it did so helping his friends of the Francoist side when they were in danger of death; He managed, they released José Luis Sáenz de Heredia (cousin of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of phalanx), he sympathized with Franco, because they had worked together in Filmófono. August 18, 1936, Lorca is assassinated.

In September 1936 he left Madrid train crowded into Geneva via Barcelona. There had quoted it an interview vayo Álvarez, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic, who sent him to Paris as a confidant of Luis araquistáin, Ambassador to France, to perform different missions, mainly of intelligence. He oversaw and wrote to Pierre unik documentary loyal arms Spain. Air baptism he made several trips lightning Spain, in war missions.

In 1937 he was overseeing the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International exhibition for the Republican government. Dalí painted his second and final portrait: sleep. 16 September of 1938, aided in travel by his friends Charles noailles and Rafael Sánchez Ventura, went to Hollywood again, this time commissioned by the Republican government oversight, as technical and historical, Advisor to two films about the Civil war to shoot in the United States.

After the war in 1941, when it began filming in Charge of Innocents, the general Association of U.S. producers banned all film against Franco, which meant the end of the project, in which Buñuel was involved. Out of work and with little money, and now with his wife and children reunited with him, he accepted the contract offered by the Museum of modern art (MOMA) in New York as associate producer for the document section and supervisor and head of Assembly of documentaries for inter-American Affairs coordination leading nelson rockefeller. Its mission was to select propaganda films antinazi; It had own personal Office in charge. But was dismissed in 1943 from the publication of the book the secret Salvador Dalí’s life, where the painter met Buñuel atheist and man of the left. A motion pictures herald journalist attacked Buñuel in an article where warned about how dangerous that was the presence of this Spanish in a very prestigious Museum. Buñuel met with Dalí in New York to ask explanations and that interview was the breakdown of their relationship.

He returned to Hollywood and set to work for Warner Brothers as head of dubbing Spanish versions for Latin America. After working with Warner in 1946, he stayed in Los Angeles in search of a work on the film and that to give American citizenship, who had requested.

Mexican stage

When Luis Buñuel was still living money they had saved the previous year, by chance did that at a dinner in the House of the French filmmaker René clair found with Denise rrent, the widow of Russian actor Pierre batcheff (an Andalusian dog, protagonist who had committed suicide in 1932). Women, who had become married French producer Ronald Tual offered work in the new project which intended to make: the House of Bernarda Alba, Buñuel to lead. Rrent that had come to Los Angeles with the interest to learn more about the American film industry had intention of making the film between Paris and Mexico, which took advantage of his return to Paris to make scale in Mexico and put into practice some issues with the French producer of Russian origin Oscar dacingers, exiled in that country. Once there they learned of the rights of the work had been sold to another company that had bid higher.

Truncated project, Luis Buñuel was fortunate that Dacingers to offer another work: go argentina Libertad lamarque Gran Casino, a commercial film with well-known Mexican singer Jorge Negrete and the first figure. Buñuel accepted and, once arranged all residency paperwork and installed with his wife and children, he joined the Mexican film industry. This first film of its new stage was a resounding failure [ 3 ] and the three following years was forced to keep the money sent you her mother each month.

In 1949, on the verge of leaving film, Dacingers asked to take over the leadership of El gran calavera, Fernando Soler could not be both the director and protagonist. The success of this film and the granting of Mexican nationality encouraged Buñuel to raise Dacingers a new project more in line with your wishes as a filmmaker, proposing, under the title my textiles, Chief!, an argument about the adventures of a young Lottery retailer. This offer followed by a better response from Dacingers, the realization of a story about poor Mexican children.

In 1950, Buñuel made the forgotten, film with strong ties to Las Hurdes, land without bread, and that initially did not like the ultranationalist Mexican (Jorge Negrete first), as it portrays the reality of poverty and suburban misery to the dominant culture did not recognize. However, the award for best director who awarded the 1951 Cannes Film Festival was international recognition of the film, and the rediscovery of Luis Buñuel, and rehabilitation of filmmaker of Mexican society. Currently, the forgotten is one of the only two films recognized by Unesco as World Heritage.

In 1951 was shot Susana and he, film was a commercial failure but that would be revalorada in the years ahead. In 1952 he left Mexico City to film ascent to heaven, simple tape where the protagonist dream gives Buñuel’s surrealist touch and which earned him once again go to Cannes. That same year shot Robinson crusoe, first movie filmed in Eastmancolor (daily sent copies to California to check results), and, together with the young, who led in 1960, the two unique film shot in English and American co-production. In 1953 he directed the illusion travels by tram, one of the films considered “minor”, but by its freshness and simplicity, and backed by writers such as José Revueltas and Juan cabada, survived over the years.

In 1954 he led River and death and he was elected member of the jury of the Cannes Film Festival. In 1955, year that filmed so the aurora France (giving you the opportunity to visit his mother in Pau), true to his ideas, signed a manifesto against the American atomic bomb, which, together with its support for the magazine anti-fascist Spain free (positioned in United States.) (UU.), marked its inclusion in the American black list until 1975. In that time, every time that passed through us. UU., he and his family were interrogated. However, Buñuel said that United States. UU. It was the most beautiful land had known. When someone asked if it was communist always he answered that it was a Republican Spanish.

After a crime essay (1955), in 1956 he performed death in that garden, with a screenplay by Luis alcoriza and Raymond queneau novel Lacour budget adaptation. The National Film Theatre of London conducted a retrospective of his work. Nazarín (1958), Palme d’Or At Cannes in 1959, is the first of the three films featuring actor Paco Rabal. That same year she made the ambitious political and social cinema. In 1960 led last play, Don Juan Tenorio, in Mexico, and performed and premiered in the United States. UU. The young woman. He then returned to Spain to direct Viridiana hispano-mexicana co-production with screenplay written together with Julius Alexander. The film was produced by Gustavo Alatriste (by Mexican Party) and by pere portabella and Ricardo Muñoz suay from Spanish production companies UNINCI (Union Industrial film) and 59 Films. It starred Silvia pinal, Francisco Rabal and Fernando Rey.

Viridiana was presented in competition at the 1961 Cannes film festival as the official representative of Spain and won the Palme d’Or, which picked up the then Director General of cinematography, José Muñoz fontán. However, once the periodic Vatican L’Osservatore Romano condemning the tape, which his blasphemous and sacrilegious, Spanish censorship forbade the tape and Muñoz Fontán was forced to resign. Viridiana has not failed project in Spain officially until 1977. He was winner of the Premio Nacional de Bellas Artes Mexico Government in 1977.[ 4 ]

In 1962 he filmed the exterminating Angel, one of his most personal and important films and that referred to several jokes deprived of their period of residence of students and the surrealist period in France.

French stage

Already in his Mexican Buñuel had shot several films of French production after glowing European criticism of a crime essay, so the aurora or death in the garden, but its true re-entry in French filmmaking occurred in 1963 with diary of a Chambermaid (Le Journal d’une Femme de Chambre), Octave mirbeau novel. Thus begins his cooperation with serge silberman producer and scriptwriter Jean-Claude Carrière.

In 1964 filmed their last Mexican film Simon of the desert, which did not end as it was designed by lack of budget. Yet earned the Silver Lion of the Venice Film Festival year 1965, year in which to Carrère, prepared the adaptations of the monk and Là-bas.

In 1966, year in which Dalí telegraphed from Figueras offers you prepare the second part of an Andalusian dog. Belle de jour, which received the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1967 debuted that year. This film won in France an extraordinary public success and then premieres of Buñuel became cultural events, which motivated that Silberman give him complete creative freedom and sufficient resources for the production of their films, which marked the final stage of his work. In 1969 the Mostra gave him great tribute Award for overall work.

In 1970 he returned to Spain for shooting, this time under either of co-production, Tristana, starring catherine deneuve, who had played the lead role in Belle de jour.

In 1972 he became the first director Spanish in getting the Oscar for best film of non-English speaking by the discreet charm of the bourgeoisie (Le charme discret la bourgeoisie), film to shoot in Spain, which proved impossible due to censorship. This film, along with Milky way (La Voie Collectif, 1968) and the Phantom of liberty (Le fantôme de la Liberté, 1974), make up a sort of trilogy that attacks the foundations of conventional narrative and concept proposition, film exposure of chance as engine behavior and the world to advocate. That same year 1972 visited Los Angeles, where he lived his son Rafael and George cukor offered a dinner in honor of Buñuel attended, his son Rafael and Carrière, important filmmakers such as Alfred hitchcock, billy wilder, g. Stevens, William wyler, r. Mulligan, Robert wise or Rouben Mamoulian’s at home.

In 1977 Buñuel was the Colophon to his work with that obscure object of desire (Cet Obscur Objet du Désir), received the special award from the San Sebastian Film Festival. In the film, that reviews topics previously covered by Viridiana or Tristana, carole Bouquet and Ángela Molina interpret the engendering the female character giving reply to Fernando Rey.

In 1980 he made his last trip to Spain and it had prostate surgery. In 1981, 50 years after having been banned, you rerun in the golden age of Paris, he was hospitalized for problems of gallbladder, Agustín Sánchez Vidal published his literary work, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris organised a tribute in his honor and an Andalusian dog was projected on a screen placed on the roof of this cultural center.

In 1982 he published his memoirs, written to the in collaboration with Carrière and titled my last breath.

Luis Buñuel died in Mexico City day 29 July 1983 from the early morning of heart, liver and kidney failure caused by cancer. His last words were for his wife Jeanne: “now what die”. Remained faithful to their ideology to the end: there was no farewell ceremony and where his ashes is currently unknown. That same year he became doctor honoris causa by the University of Zaragoza.

His thought

At age 14 began their doubts about the religion, the resurrection of the flesh, judgment, hell, and the devil. He said, was “atheist thank God”. Lover of tobacco, alcohol (for him, a bar was a place of meditation and retreat) and the brothels (although said married once was never unfaithful), wanted to get rid of the rules and principles of the society in inheritance left a whole system of prohibitions and repressions. Loved the punctuality, good dress, go early to bed and early to have a large collection of arms. His first gun came secretly at fourteen, although quite quickly already played with his father.

Head of Luis Buñuel, work of the sculptor Iñaki Calanda Buñuel Centre.

During his lifetime, Buñuel was a rebel, until the last moment he was fighting against himself. Inside him he dictated standards on death, faith, sex… that his conscience could not accept. This duality scored you from his earliest childhood. Buñuel broke barriers to fight for freedom.

With few years met the death of about when a peasant of his people was killed by another a camouflaged. He managed to strain at autopsy. Previously I have seen how the birds of prey devoraban a dead donkey, and thus, when he had the occasion, bought a dead donkey to see repeated the scene: was as if you enjoy seeing how the vultures generalize you the eyes and ate the donkey, tearing apart your meat.

He liked to reflect the cruel pessimistic view of life. He did so in Las Hurdes, land without bread, in the forgotten… However, he was peaceful and was always obsessed with his own death. His sister Conchita used to remember that little he had accompanied his brother Luis to visit cemeteries and it tended on the autopsy tables. Luis liked to attend funerals of his people, and the burial that takes place in Wuthering Heights was a reflection of the memories of his youth, as he himself confessed.

The vision of Buñuel hit with reality. The possibility of the destruction of the Earth, was well aware I was thinking about the wars, the atomic bomb. It stated that neither freedom nor justice existed. The Phantom of liberty reflects their thinking. It was tender, pious, orderly life. He was a helpless life and a happy childhood, but his conscience you had to think about what he called the middle ages (beginning of the 20th century) and their misery, injustice, which reflected in Wuthering Heights Nazarín, him, death in the garden, the young…

Sexual repression years he lived, he wanted to make a pornographic film, but he gave up. He attended orgies and brothels, but it not consummated, it was always faithful to his wife. The topic of sex was treated in many of his films: the young, that obscure object of desire… but at home was a Puritan, could not say tacos. Mexican actress lilia Prado mentioned the magazine we are that “during the filming of Wuthering Heights (1953), in a court for lunch I went to the dining room swimsuit with a transparent coat.” Furious (Buñuel) came to me, was very angry with me. It was as bigoted, hated to say or hear a bad word, and people think otherwise. It was even in debauchery. “You are a girl well I said, does not have why enter the dining room as well ‘. It was clean, naïve, shy and sanote; It represented a contradiction for his surreal cinema and as a human being; a man very clean, very naïve, very very naive; “a very human, man tyrant in his home as his sons and his wife, but a great man”, assured the heroine of ascent to heaven and the illusion travels by tram. Deeply jealous, not allowed or look at his wife. Never liked the established order. Already small was rebellious, resisted wear the uniform to school, but at the same time, and as you said, he led a very orderly life. Did not like religion or army; but always he spoke well stay with the Jesuits and military service.

It was somehow an anarchist, but home breathing discipline, not allowed to women attend meetings of men. The book of memoirs of Jeanne Rucar called memoirs of a woman without piano because Buñuel, without asking anyone, gave the piano from his wife to a friend who brought three bottles of wine.

It wasn’t nationalistic, but he missed Spain and the land of his childhood; became a Mexican citizen by pragmatism, he had been about to nationalize American a few years earlier. She did not travel but I enjoyed when visiting sites that brought fond memories. I didn’t go for Latin America and stayed to live in Mexico. A Mexican lady who was his neighbor in del Valle neighborhood of the city of Mexico commented that Buñuel never forgot his roots: during Easter week saw him only by the garden of his house by redobles with a drum and laps and laps.

Luis Buñuel came from a family bourgeois and very religious, he studied and lived the discipline of religion, but it could be argued that his work aims, among other objectives, change the society we live, which is based on religion, family, and the established order, and it imposes a moral and social behavior that not even the bourgeoisie behind power is free. He wanted all of his works were burned and so have rest and dignity from scratch.

If had always obsessed you death, in the last five years of his life, dull, with little vista with some operation than other, ceased to see cinema, television and as soon as it would take a book, with the exception of the old age of simone de beauvoir, who read and releía. I thought his death and the end of the world, joked with each other in their old age. With the help of his friend Jean-Claude Carrière, who for more than 18 years collected material from interviews and conversations during filming, breaks wrote Mon dernier soupir (‘my last breath’). Already the title reflects the obsession which had in the last moments of his life; He didn’t give them importance, but I was thinking about them. As an atheist, I was thinking about bringing together the day of his death his atheist friends and confess. For him, being facetious was a way to show that it was in order. This book of memories would inspire the documentary film directed by Javier Espada and Gaizka Urresti and entitled the last indent to star Jean-Claude Carrière and Juan Luis Buñuel, visiting the places in which he spent life Buñuel: Calanda, Zaragoza, Madrid, Toledo, Paris, New York, Los Angeles and Mexico.

Favorite books

In spite of having written some literary works, Buñuel was seen as “ágrafo”, which not prevented him from being a tireless reader all his life. Some of his favorite books, as he himself stated on several occasions, were:

* The Golden legend of James of Voragine

* The monk by matthew Lewis.

* Peter ibbetson of George du Maurier.

* Jan potocki manuscript found in Saragossa.

* History of the Spanish heterodox marcelino Menéndez Pelayo.

* Emily brontë Wuthering Heights.

* El Lazarillo de Tormes (Spanish anonymous).

* alain-René lesage Gil santillana Blas.[ 5 ]

* Don Juan Tenorio from Jose Zorrilla[ 6 ]

* Old age of simone de beauvoir.

* The work of the Marquis de Sade and Benito Pérez Galdós.

Some of these books were adapted into a film by Buñuel and others served you as documentation or inspiration for his films.

Filmography

As director

From 1929 to 1977 he conducted a total of 32 films.[ 7 ] In addition, in 1930 shot Menjant garotes (“eating sea urchins”), a film moved only four minutes with family Dalí as a protagonist.

* An Andalusian dog (A chien andalou, 1929).[ 8 ]

* The golden age (L’âge d’or, 1930).[ 9 ]

* Las Hurdes, land without bread (Las Hurdes, 1933).

* Great Casino (In the old Tampico, 1947).

* El gran Calavera (1949).

* The forgotten (1950).

* Susana (Demon and meat, 1951).

* The daughter of deceit (1951).

* A woman without love (When the children judged us, 1952).

* Ascent to heaven (1952).

* The gross (1953).

* He (1953).

* The illusion travels by tram (1954).

* Wuthering Heights (1954).

* Robinson Crusoe (in 1952 and in 1954).

* Ensayo de un crimen (The life of Archibaldo de la Cruz criminal, 1955).

* The river and death (1954-1955).

* So the aurora (Cela s’appelle l’Aurore, 1956).

* Death in the garden (Death in the garden, La mort CE jardin, 1956).

* Nazarín (1958-1959).

* The ambitious (Fever rises El Pao, fièvre monte El Pao, 1959).

* The young woman (the young one, 1960).

* Viridiana (1961).

* The exterminating Angel (1962).

* Diary of a Chambermaid (Le journal d’une femme de chambre, 1964).

* Simon of the desert (1964-1965).

* Belle de jour (Day Bella, 1966-1967).

* The milky way (Collectif Voie, 1969).

* Tristana (1970).

* The discreet charm of the bourgeoisie (Le charme discret la bourgeoisie, 1972).

* The Phantom of liberty (Le fantôme of liberté la, 1974).

* That obscure object of desire (Cet obscur objet du désir, 1977).

Apart from the films made as director, actor, or he also collaborated in a way, there were a number of projects that failed.[ 10 ]

As Assistant Director

* Mauprat Jean Epstein (1926).

* The sirène des tropiques (Mario Nalpas and Henri Étiévant, 1927).

* The chute de la maison Usher Jean Epstein (1928).

As a producer or supervisor

* An Andalusian dog (1929).

* Don Quentin the Amargao (Luis Markina, 1935).

* The daughter of John Simon (José Luis Sáenz de Heredia, 1935).

* Who loves me (José Luis Sáenz de Heredia, 1936).

* Sentinel alert (Jean Grémillon, 1936).

* Arms fair Spain (Jean-Paul Le Chanois, 1937). Spain 1936 or Madrid 1936 propaganda film.

As a screenwriter in films not made by him

* If you can’t, I Yes Juan Soler (1950).

* The monk (“Le moine”) (Ado Kyrou, 1965).

* Bride of midnight (Antonio f. Simon, 1997). Screenplay by l. Buñuel and José blonde Barcia adapted by Lino Braxe.

As an actor

* Mauprat (Jean epstein, 1926).

* Carmen (Jacques Feyder, 1926).

* Albatros (1927).

* An Andalusian dog (1929).

* Bitter fruit (Arthur Gregor, 1931).

* The daughter of John Simon (José Luis Sáenz de Heredia, 1935).

* Crying by a bandit (Carlos saura, 1964).[ 11 ]

* In this village there are no thieves (Alberto Isaac, 1964).

* Belle de jour (1967)

* Chute d’ a corps (Michel Polac, 1973).

* The Phantom of liberty (1974).

Literary work

Luis Buñuel had made several attempts in various fields of focus on world cinema. During your stay in the Madrid student residence he wrote some tales and short stories that were later collected under the title of Luis Buñuel writings.

* Unspeakable treachery

* Instrumentation

* Suburbs

* Unnoticed tragedies such as latest Theatre topics

* Why I never use clock

* The blind man turtles

* Theorem

* Lucille and her three fish

* Ramuneta Beach

* Rusticana Cavalry

* A decent story

* The Nice slogan of Santa Huesca

* A giraffe

* About loveReferences

1. ↑ * Buñuel, Luis and Carrière, Jean-Claude: Mon dernier soupir, Paris, Éditions Robert Laffont, 1982. Spanish Edition: my last breath, Barcelona, Random House Mondadori, 1982. ISBN 84-9759-504-1

2. ↑ greatest directors and their best films at www.filmsite.org

3. ↑ Sánchez Vidal, a.: Luis buñuel, Chair, Madrid, 2004 (4th ed.), p. 47. ISBN 84-376-2151-8.

4. ↑ National Council for culture and the arts. «National of Arts and Sciences Award». Ministry of public education. Accessed December 1, 2009.

5. ↑ Sánchez Vidal, Augustine: Buñuel, Lorca, Dalí. Endless enigma, planet, Barcelona, 1988 (2nd Edition), p. 214. ISBN 84-320-5867-X

6. ↑ Sánchez Vidal, Augustine: Buñuel, Lorca, Dalí. Endless enigma, planet, Barcelona, 1988 (2nd Edition), p. 87.

7. ↑ the contradictions of don Luis. Full annotated Filmography of Luis Buñuel.

8. ↑ an Andalusian dog (1929) in Flash format

9. ↑ golden age (1930) in Flash format

10. ↑ unborn Buñuel. The films that Luis Buñuel did not perform.

11. ↑ Buñuel in ‘Tears by a bandit’

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