John Ford (1 February 1894 – 31 August 1973) was an actor, director and film producer American, four time winner of the Academy Award.
Born John Martin “Jack” Feeney (while often said that his real name Sean Aloysius, O’Feeny surname or O’Fearna; Feeney Gaelic equivalent) in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, was the son of Irish olim (John Augustine Feeney and Barbara “Abbey” Curran) 13th. After his attempt to enter the Marina, moved in 1913 to Hollywood to work with his brother Francis Ford, director, screenwriter and actor at the Universal Studios. Ten years later, adopted the pseudonym Jack Ford which soon changed by John Ford.
Actor and Assistant Director in the films of his brother, from 1917 begins directing his own films for the Universal, were interpreted by the legendary western Harry Carey one of the first heroes of the American West. Made large numbers of silent films, many of them poor, who have not reached our days. In 1924, makes his first major film, apart from his first major success: the iron horse.
But it was with the sound when John Ford uncovered altogether. In 1935 he won his first Academy Award with The whistleblowers. Throughout his career he won three more: in 1940 by the grapes of wrath; 1941, How Green was my Valley (taking is what Orson Welles and his Citizen Kane); in 1952, by the quiet man.
In 1939, truly exploded his talent. He directed the diligence with which the western acquired greater gender category. From there, the films that made became a legend. He was also his first important collaboration with John Wayne, his actor fetish that would accompany him throughout his career. Many times she said that the character Wayne was alter ego of Ford: it would be better to say that it was the prototype cowboy Irish director imagined.
Other actors with whom he worked were: Maureen O’Hara, woman of great beauty with strong character to oppose men; James Stewart, Victor McLaglen; Ward Bond, its supporting actor for excellence or Henry Fonda. It was heard surround a large specialists team. The writers include Dudley Nichols (La Dilgencia) or Frank S. Nugent (The quiet man, The Searchers); photography worked with greats such as: Winton C. Hoch (quiet man), Gregg Toland (the grapes of wrath) or Gabriel Figueroa (the fugitive).
During the Second World War made his service in the Navy, making several documentaries. Achieved the rank of Rear Admiral. Back, and in 1947, was producer of the majority of his films.
John Ford he has accused of recalcitrant Republican and racist. Nothing more distant to the reality, he was one of the first directors to give dignity to the Indians and their facet policy, though he liked to show some ambivalence, the same stated liberal Democrat, and above all, I’m a rebel.
John Ford, is after D.w. Griffith, the image of American cinema. When dared to show his feelings, his films squander an unsurpassed lyrical. EPIC tone films knew perfectly combine the drama with engraved of true derision. He was a master of time, a great director of actors who drew, sometimes cruelly, his best performances. Is one of the most renowned directors as examples is the Ford of Francis Ford Coppola in his honor and Orson Welles when asked by his three favorite directors responded: John Ford, John Ford and John Ford.
He has directed more than 60 films and is highlighting the magnificent tandem formed with actor John Wayne, who directed 20 feature films.
Died on 31 August 1973 in Palm Desert at the age of 79. It is said, according to witnesses, his last words were: “Does someone have a cigarette?”.
Popularity and fame
John Ford is considered one of most important makers of classical Hollywood (between 20 and 60 of the 20th century late).
All the major American filmmakers has been one of which has had more influence in later films. Shortly after reaching Hollywood won applause and admiration of the producers. One member was most active of the Guild of American filmmakers.
Although it is popular for its western in his filmography are all types of characters: ordinary people, farmers, immigrants, workers, dark, Indian military… this amount of colorful characters allow Ford to talk with realism and humor of the great diversity of humankind. All of these shows (more or less clearly) Catholic and patriotic character of the director. In the same way is considered to be a filmmaker of grandiose landscapes and large scenarios.
Between Portland and Ireland
John Martin Feeney was born into a family of Irish immigrants. His father was original Spiddal in County Galway, and his mother, of the islands of Aran. John is the youngest of a family of eleven children (of which three were born dead and two others died very children). Some time later her father immigrated to United States in 1872 and in 1878 or 1880 nationalized American installed in Portland. A speakeasy where met the Irish community in the village there opened in 1897. By problems, until the age of 12 years, John Ford had life heading between Portland and Ireland.
In 1909 his brother Frank T. Feeney travels to California with Gaston Méliès. He becomes Francis Ford: actor and filmmaker serials for Universal Pictures Studios.
John, during his student years showed a passionate history of being an excellent football player. Won some money working as goalkeeper of the Jeffersons Theatre (in Portland), and thus saw the big players such as Ethel Barrymore or wild West shows.
Its beginnings in Universal Pictures
John Martin came to the University in 1914 and was conspicuous by his scholastic absenteeism. When that same year his brother Francis returned home and spoke of Hollywood, John decided to go with him. There he discovered the intricacies of cinema thanks to films that his brother starred and performed for Universal Studios. He took the same position and adopted the name Jack Ford. In 1915 he played two small roles in films made by his brother as asistente-realizador. He later played one of the founders of the Ku Klux Klan in D. w. Griffith’s the birth of a nation.
From 1916 was hired by universal studios as asistente-realizador. He helped other directors hired by Allan Dawn and he started directing scenes of extras. The first film that he directed entirely is the tornado which premiered on March 3, 1917. This meant his first contract with universal for $125 per week. So did other two western starring Harry Carey. They worked together in 25 films after meeting in 1919. On this date he already earned $300 per week, and had achieved a great director Hollywood fame.
John met Mary McBryde Smith in 1920. The girl of Irish, source descendant of Thomas More would be his wife soon after. She was divorced what not able to marry by the Church. They had two sons: Patrick Michael (1921) and Barbara (1922). Both were devoted to the world of cinema when they were higher: Patrick as productor-realizador Série Z movies and Barbara as assembler.
Most of the films made by universal today are missing. Only remain three El rancho diablo 1917, his first feature film; Bucking Broadway in the same year and recently recovered; and Hell Bent of 1919. Tdas them are starring by Harry Carey reflecting the essence of Ford Western movies: its large scenarios and complex equal to men’s female characters.
In the Fox
Movies made by Ford from its inception until 1920 are produced by universal. It is this year when debuts its first film for the Fox. It Cameo Kirby, 1923, is the first film John Ford’s name appears in whose credits (decided to replace his first artistic name, by the John Jack Ford).
In 1921 he undertook a long trip to Europe. Return to Ireland, where one of his nephews is part of the IRA. This is how it is submitted to the Irish independence Michael Collins.
Begins to earn $600 a week and in 1924 the Fox hoped a pharaonic film entitled iron horse. In 1927 he moved to Germany for filming of Four sons, where he discovers the expressionist film. It is the most grossing film director.
In 1927 was elected director of the Motion Pictures Directors Association.
His debut at talkies
The first talkie Ford is Napoleon’s barber (now defunct). Ford shows his worth then action scenes since dialogadas scenes are employed actors Theatre not ended up giving the film air intended.
In 1928 signed a contract with Fox two years with an incredible salary: win $2500 per week during the first year and 2750 and the second. Underwater tragedy (Men without Women) 1930 is Ford’s first collaboration with writer Dudley Nichols. Ford would say his teammate in Présence du cinema, March 1965: < < we have very friendly. He loves the cinema. He writes not never sound phrases. He writes with everyday language, and minimizes the dialogues. It is a wonderful man .
In 1931 Fox, having lost to William Fox puts an end to his contract, but you can continue working with other companies. Suffers its first alcoholic Detox on a trip to Honolulu. That same year directs Arrowsmith with producer Samuel Goldwyn what reported you a first nomination for the Academy Awards, although it cost him to adapt to new conditions of work of their new producer. His next film Air mail 1932, is produced by universal. Furthermore wheel her first film for the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer: Flesh melodrama. Recovers Dudley Nichols for the patrol lost that puts in scene in 1934 the RKO with Victor McLaglen, who would offer a new great role in Hangman’s house. Ford always detestará his next film World plug set in the late 19th century and early 20th Centuries while has several very realistic war scenes. More successful was Judge Priest with Dudley Nichols on the script and the actor who had directed the year before in Dr. Bull and to lead again in 1935 in the movie Will Rogers Steamboat round the bend, just before he died in a tragic plane crash. This film is a favorite of director. It was a 1952 remake titled the sun shines for all the world.
In 1934, Ford starts to participate financially in his films. You bought a yacht which baptized “l” Araner “in tribute to Ireland would have until 1970. Shot two films and would start to have problems due to pressure from Hollywood. Continued her friendship with John Wayne, who worked with him as a walk-on in his first films in the informer.
In 1935 he founded with King Vidor, William a. Wellman, Frank Borzage, Lewis Milestone, Gregory La Cava Directors Association, replacing the Association of Directors of films. The informer, done very fast for RKO allowed him to address the issue of the British Ireland. His sympathy for the IRA are a mystery. In this film is discovered the inner decorations, Ford is far from their large productions and classic scenery of the West. With this work, inspired by the expressionist film received his first Academy Award for best director that would stop the Directors Association founded earlier.
20th Century Pictures in 1935 absorbs the Fox, and became since 20th Century Fox, Darryl f. Zanuck. Performs alongside his new producer, a great admirer of Abraham Lincoln, prisoner of hatred. Problems between Ford and Zanuck begin with the confrontation of the southern accent Warer Baxter. Ford is about to leave the 20th Century Fox but finally agrees to the wishes of Zanuck. Since then maintained a close friendship and admiration.
Addresses Katharine Hepburn in Mary (Mary of Scotland) for RKO in 1936. Also addressed in 1937 on the island Hurricane produced by Samuel Goldwyn.
In 1937 he enlisted in the film helps the Spanish Committee to help Republicans combatants in the Spanish Civil war (1936-1939). Undertakes personally send an ambulance with International brigades. It is a very active wrestler also in the fight against Nazism. In 1938 the blockade of the nazi Germany defends and is appointed member of the League Hollywood Anti-Nazi. The signing of the Pact germano-soviético earned her criticism of Communists who accused him of “propaganda war”.
The classical period
La diligence the fugitive
With the diligence, Ford returns to western. In this film features John Wayne receives the opportunity of your life and become a big star. Exterior shot in Monument Valley. The film opted to eight Oscars, which succeeded in supporting actor with Thomas Mitchell and soundtrack, and John Ford received the Award of the new film critics. Diligence is considered the best film of all time West.
Then, beside Zanuck resumed his passion for Lincoln and the young Lincoln with Henry Fonda, who will be the protagonist of his two films shot together: the grapes of wrath (collaboration number twelve with scenographer Nunnally Johnson and indomitable crossings.) In 1940 again won the Academy Award for best director. His talent is finally recognized by professionals and critics.
Back to working with John Wayne in The Long Voyage Home. Ford’s last movie before the war (How Green was my Valley) is a success of public and critics. Receives five Oscars including best picture and best Director (taking it so Citizen Kane of Orson Welles.)
1939 Ford has the intuition that America would not take to go into the Second World War. Put at the head of a group of filmmakers calling for the boycott of the nazi Germany Franklin Roosevelt and founded a group of people in Hollywood at the service of the American Navy named Naval Field Photographic Unit. Two other similar groups were founded after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
During the war Ford and his team through theaters informing of military operations. Early 1.942 go in front of the Pacific. Made for Navy documentaries: 7 December on the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the battle of Midway; pictures of the Japanese attack on the island were filmed by Ford. The two reported an Academy Award for best documentary. Also made a small movie for the families of the victims of Midway called Torpedo Squadron. In 1942 he moved to North Africa to meet the landing. During 1943 covers multiple foreign operations and the victories of the allies in Victoria in Burma. Also covers in 1944 landed in Normandy. Continues also to the army during the preparation of the Nuremberg process.
From February to June 1945 wheel They were expendable for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer with John Wayne, Robert Montgomery and Donna Reed. This curiously is the only film Ford on World War II, in which participated so actively. The money raised by this film was destined for Veterans of the Photo Unit Field and the Field Photo farm.
After the war returned to Hollywood and back to shoot in Monumental Valley: the strong passion. The fugitive (1947) works again with Henry Fonda, who allowed to interpret with total freedom.
The quiet man
Directed her in 1952, again in the company of his favorite actor John Wayne. The film is about a boxer, Sean Thornton (played by the appointed Wayne), who returns to his hometown Ireland to retrieve his farm to escape his past. There fell in love with a cheerful girl, though to get it must fight against local customs, including the payment of a dowry and the opposition of the temperamental brother of his fiancée.
The film earned seven nominations at the Oscars, including best film, and was honored by two. One of the statues was aimed at hands of Ford, and the other directors of photography Winton C. Hoch and Archie Stout.
* His Lordship (His Lordship) (1936)
* Everybody Does It (Everybody Does It) (1949)
* Bucking Broadway (The rescue / Bucking Broadway) (1917)
* Cheyenne’s PAL (The mystery of Martin / friend Cayenne) (1917)
* Under sentence of death (For Marked Man) (1917)
* The Scrapper (The Scrapper) (1917)
* The Secret Man (Reo 1432 man among men) (1917)
* The Soul Herder (The law of the strongest El bravo Cayenne) (1917)
* Bulletproof (Straight Shooting) (1917)
* The tornado (The Tornado) (1917)
* Trail of Hate (Trail of Hate) (1917)
* Delirium (film) (Delirium) (1918)
* Hell Bent (The Devil’s Gorge in the avenging cowboy) (1918)
* Phantom rider (The ghosts of the Valley on the mask) (1918)
* The drop of blood (The Scarlet Drop) (1918)
* Thieves’ Gold (The new path) (1918)
* Three Mounted Men (Three cowboys loyalty) (1918)
* Wild Women (Two women / Wild Women) (1918)
* A woman’s Fool (The poisoned freshwater marine) (1918)
* ACE of the Saddle (A man of peace the iron Horseman) (1919)
* Bare Fists (Unarmed man paid debt) (1919)
* To Fight for Love (When the offender confessed the smuggler) (1919)
* The Fighting Brothers (The Fighting Brothers) (1919)
* To Gun Fightin’ gentleman (The cowboy Knight / Guns Gold man) (1919)
* The Gun Packers (The Gun Packers) (1919)
* The Last Outlaw (The Last Outlaw) (1919)
* Marked Men (The force of circumstances in the tramp) (1919)
* The Outcasts of Poker Flat (The pariahs of sierra) (1919)
* Rider of the Law (The arm of the law) (1919)
* The avenging rider (Riders of Vengeance) (1919)
* Wife by mail Men without arms (Roped) (1919)
* The Girl in Number 29 (The maiden 29 girl fourth 29) (1920)
* Hitchin’ Posts (Knight tahur Gold ligatures) (1920)
* Just Pals (Comrades / Buenos amigos) (1920)
* The Prince of Avenue A (The Prince of the Avenue A) (1920)
* Energetic action (Action) (1921)
* The Big Punch (Filial love / iron hands) (1921)
* Desperate Trains (Indelible trace / trail of despair) (1921)
* The Freeze-Out (Satisfied debt) (1921)
* Jackie (Jacqueline Juanita) (1921)
* Sure Fire (Accurate fire) (1921)
* The Wallop (The scourge of love the coup) (1921)
* Little Miss Smiles (The cascabelera La señorita smiles) (1922)
* Silver Wings (Spoiled son) (1922)
* The blacksmith of the village (The Village Blacksmith) (1922)
* Jack, Knight and King (Cameo Kirby) (1923)
* The Face on the Bar Room Floor (The story of the drunk) (1923)
* The day of death (North of Hudson Bay) (1923)
* Defeating abysses (Three Jumps Ahead) (1923)
* Hearts of Oak (Hearts of oak) (1924)
* Hoodman Blind (The wandering sinner) (1924)
* The iron horse (The Iron Horse) (1924)
* Fearless heart (The Fighting Heart) (1925)
* Kentucky Pride (Blood pure race track blood) (1925)
* Lightnin’ (The recognising Don Pancho) (1925)
* Gracefully all-night (Thank You) (1925)
* The Blue Eagle (The Blue Eagle) (1926)
* The Shamrock Handicap (Clover leaf clover datasheet) (1926)
* Three bad men (Three Bad Men) (1926)
* Upstream (Against the current be or not to be) (1927)
* Four children (Four Sons) (1928)
* The House of the hangman Tragic legacy (Hangman’s House) (1928)
* Mother Machree (The sacrifice of a mother mother mine!) (1928)
* The Barber of Napoleon (Napoleon’s Barber) (1928)
* Riley the Cop (The police without handcuffs police without handcuffs) (1928)
* Black Watch (Shari, Eastern sorceress Shari’a, the enchantress) (1929)
* Salute (The audacity triumphs Audacity triumph) (1929)
* Strong Boy (Viva ambition!) (Viva ambition) (1929)
* The intrepid (Born Reckless) (1930)
* Underwater tragedy (Men Without Women) (1930)
* Upriver (Up the River) (1930)
* Arrowsmith (Physician and lover El doctor Arrowsmith) (1931)
* Swell (The Seas Beneath) (1931)
* The huerfanita (The Brat) (1931)
* Men without fear (Air Mail) (1932)
* Meat (Flesh) (1932)
* Dr. Bull (The doctor Bull) (1933)
* Pilgrimage (Pilgrim pilgrimage) (1933)
* Judge Priest (Judge Priest) (1934)
* The lost patrol (The Lost Patrol) (1934)
* Peace on Earth (The World Moves On) (1934)
* The informer (The Informer) (1935)
* Steamboat Round the Bend (Steamboat Round the Bend) (1935)
* Public enemy No. 1 Passport to fame (The Whole town’s Talking) (1935)
* Mary (Mary of Scotland) (1936)
* Prisoner of hatred (The prisoner of Shark Island) (1936)
* The plough and stars The Ursa Major and stars (The Plough and the Stars) (1936)
* Hurricane Hurricane on the island (The hurricane) (1937)
* The idol of the regiment The mascot of the regiment (Wee Willie Winkie) (1937)
* Four Men and a Prayer (Four men and a prayer) (1938)
* Submarine Patrol (Underwater patrol) (1938)
* The Adventures of Marco Polo (Adventures of Marco Polo (1938 film) (1938))
* To redouble reel Indomables hearts (Drums Along the Mohawk) (1939)
* Diligence (Stagecoach) (1939)
* The young Lincoln (Young Mr. Lincoln) (1939)
* The grapes of wrath (Vineyards of anger / the grapes of wrath) (1940)
* The Long Voyage Home (Sea men / intrepid men) (1940)
* How Green Was My Valley (How Green was my Valley) (1941)
* Sex Hygiene (Sex Hygiene) (1941)
* Tobacco road The path of tobacco (Tobacco road) (1941)
* The Battle of Midway (The Battle of Midway) (1942)
* We Sail at Midnight (1943)
* December 7 (December 7th) (1943)
* My darling Clementine (The passion of the strong / passion of the strong) (1945)
* They Were Expendable (Those slaughtered were / were not essential) (1945)
* The fugitive (The Fugitive) (1947)
* 3 Godfathers (Three sons of the devil / three godfathers) (1948)
* Pinky (What meat inherits) (1949)-(Only one scene)
* Fort Apache (Blood of Heroes / Fuerte Apache) (1948)
* She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (Invincible Legion) (1949)
* Río Grande (Rio Grande) (1950)
* Caravan of courage Peace caravan (Wagon Master) (1950)
* The impossible superhero How great you are Bill, (When Willie Comes Marching Home) (1950)
* This Is Korea (This Is Korea) (1951)
* The Quiet Man (Quiet man / A quiet man / quiet man) (1952)
* The Raiders (The Raiders) (1952)
* The price of glory (What What Price Glory?) (1952)
* Mogambo (1953)
* The sun shines The sun always shine in Kentucky (The Sun shines bright) (1953)
* The long gray line (Cradle of Heroes) (1955)
* Mister Roberts (Scale in Hawaii) (1955)
* Rookie of the Year (Rookie of the Year) (1955)
* The Searchers (Centaurs desert / more heart I hate) (1956)
* The output of the Moon (The Rising of the Moon) (1957)
* The Wings of Eagles (Under the Sun / posted Sun or Eagle wings) (1957)
* Gideon’s Day/Gideon of Scotland Yard (A crime per hour) (1958)
* The Last Hurrah (The last hurrah / the last alive) (1958)
* The horse soldiers (Bold mission / March of brave) (1959)
* Korea (Korea) (1959)
* Sergeant Rutledge (The captain Buffalo / the black Sergeant/Sergeant Rutledge) (1960)
* Two Rode Together (Two ride together / mission two courageous) (1961)
* How the west was won (The conquest of the West) (1962)
* The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (The man who shot Liberty Valance / A night shot) (1962)
* Donovan’s Reef (Pacific adventurer / the Irish tavern) (1963)
* Cheyenne Autumn (Twilight of the Cheyenne / the great combat / the autumn the Cheyenne / last combats) (1964)
* [[Young Cassidy]] (Rebel dreamer / rebel dreamers) (1965)
* 7 women (Seven women) (1966)
* Chesty: A Tribute to a Legend (Chesty: A Tribute to a Legend) (1970)
* Three bad men (Three Bad Men) (1926)
* Underwater tragedy (Men Without Women) (1930)
* Peace caravan (Wagon Master) (1950)