Roger Vailland (1907 – 1965) was a novelist, essayist, and screenwriter French. In his youth he participated alongside René daumal and others in Le grand jeu, close to surrealism art group.

His novels include Drôle de jeu (1945), Les mauvais coups (1948), A jeune homme seul (1951), 325 000 francs (1955) and the loi (1957), winner of the Prix Goncourt. His scripts for film include Les liaisons dangereuses (with Claude brûlé and roger vadim, 1959) and Le vice et la vertu (with Vadim, 1962).